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Lately, I've been noticing a disappointingly large number of people out there on deviantART who call themselves "writers", but are surprisingly clueless when it comes to honestly and clearly conveying a story in prose. In an effort to give them a hand up (and perhaps to reach out to other writers frustrated with our increasingly text message-happy culture), I am compiling a list of tips I think every writer should know.

Now, I won't pretend that I know everything on the subject (since I don't), but I've been told I'm a pretty decent writer, and I think I do sufficiently know my way around the English language. These tips won't automatically make you a good writer, but they're certainly good things to keep in mind as you write. These aren't rules, but hints.

As you can imagine, this list will very much be a work in progress, as there is plenty of information that hasn't been covered here and might be added later. Feel free to drop back in later to see if I've added anything new.

So, without further ado…


Or in more visual terms, don't just describe what it looks like. Describe what it feels like. So let's say your character is in a rage over something. Don't just say he's angry, that tells us nothing! Show us what he's DOING! Is he clenching his fists? Gritting his teeth? Evidently getting ready to wring the other guy's neck? Are his friends being forced to restrain him? If you play it right, you'll feel this guy's fury right through the page, and your reader will either sympathize with him or feel like curling up in a corner to hide.


Describing in prose is way harder than you'd think. Your job as a writer is to unmistakably get your vision across to someone you've never met and who's never heard of your characters and story. And if you can't do that, it doesn't matter how brilliant your dialogue is or how engaging your characters are. If your audience can't be "hooked", then that's it; you can't entertain someone who's not interested in your work.

I'm sure every one of you reading this can recall a time when you got tired of hearing some garrulous writer go on and on and on about the setting or whatever, tempting you to skip to the more interesting parts. (And admit it; you gave in at times.) Here are some things I've learned that can help make your descriptions more interesting and avoid that particular pitfall.

A. Concerning Imagery

You know, that stuff your English teachers drummed into your head in school. There was a reason they did that, and it wasn't to torture you; it was to help you recognize what it took to write well. Simile, metaphor, descriptive detail, personification. You'd be amazed how much life and color can be brought to a paragraph with just a few tweaks.

Simile: Comparing one thing to another, usually by using the words "like" or "as". For example, "From where I stood, I could see everyone walk by, instinctively dodging one another like ants on a trail."

Metaphor: Also comparison, but different from similes in that the target is described with the traits of something else. Example (albeit a lame one): "From my new vantage point, they became a swarming mass of ants, unseen feelers dictating their wandering paths."

Descriptive Detail: This is NOT to be confused with "waxing poetic" (and a lot of people make that mistake-- the worst offenders usually are amateurs who are a little too taken with either their characters or with their own writing skills. A few pros are guilty of this too; I will not name names.) Descriptive detail means that you give your reader as accurate a mental image as you can possibly convey. In my experience, the best way to do this without boring your audience out of their collective skulls is to get across the basic impression of the person or place, and then fill in what else is essential to know about the subject later should the story call for it. What is NOT necessary is to describe every last little detail—no one needs to know the color of your character's shoes unless that's a crucial factor in the story— so just run down what's important, and fill things in later if something becomes important or noteworthy.

Recently, I was reading a story (a Raymond Chandler mystery) that described its main character in a single paragraph, but told you everything you needed to know about him to start the story:
"The frown passed and a miniature of a smile quirked at the corners of his lips. He sat relaxed, a short, pale, paunchy, middle-aged man with long delicate fingers clasped on the elk's tooth on his watch chain; the long delicate fingers of a sleight-of-hand artist, fingers with shiny, molded nails and tapering first joints, fingers a little spatulate at the ends. Handsome fingers. Tony Reseck rubbed them together and there was peace in his quiet, sea-gray eyes."
(--Raymond Chandler, I'll Be Waiting)

The other extreme to having no description at all, and annoyingly common in amateurish writings, is the narrative constantly reminding the reader of the features the character might have; no one needs to be told that your romantic hero has long blonde hair or green eyes every other paragraph, no matter how striking he looks.

Personification: Giving inanimate objects human traits or actions. A simple example of this might be something like "The sun smiled down on them" or "the wall stood impassively, a soldier silently blocking her way".

B. Color your descriptions with opinions. Simply stating the completely obvious is—let's face it—pretty boring. But once you start adding in what your character thinks of the situation/person/object and what it reminds him or her of, that's when it gets fun! Consider the difference between "His hair was messy, his shirt was half-untucked, his coat was ripped, and there was mud on his boots" with "He looked as though he'd fallen from a great height into a war trench, was dragged through it for a league or so, and then maybe was shoved into a thicket of brambles for good measure."

C. Avoid clichés. At least, avoid them when you can. Clichés are ideas that have shown up so much in other works that they've become predictable and tiresome (like "he had a piercing gaze" or "Your grand adventure was all a dream and you've been asleep in your own home this whole time!" or how the one female lead in a cast of action-oriented men ends up pretty much useless), and it can induce some serious eye-rolling on your reader's part if they show up in your story. In extreme cases, they might have even become stereotypes that can completely kill the believability in a story. So whenever it's possible, come up with a different way of saying the same thing. And when it's not, find a way to turn the cliché on its head. You might even get something clever out of it.

"The great ships hung motionless in the sky, over every nation on Earth. Motionless they hung, huge, heavy, steady in the sky, a blasphemy against nature. Many people went straight into shock as their minds tried to encompass what they were looking at. The ships hung in the sky in much the same way as bricks don't."
(Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy)

"Look at you, sailing through the air majestically. Like an eagle. Piloting a blimp."
(GLaDOS, Portal 2)


Dialogue is extremely fun and can be incredibly gratifying to write (especially when it comes to banter between characters), but it can also drag down a scene or feel stiff and awkward if used/written poorly. A couple of tips I've learned about writing dialogue:

A. Don't make your characters explain everything. It bogs down the story and gives your reader way too much to have to absorb. A much better (and considerably more entertaining) method is to tell things on the run—kind of like a video game tutorial level where you have to learn the controls by doing instead of by listening. So instead of  "These are toxic to the touch because of a curse that got put on them a hundred years ago and [long boring history lesson]" you get "WHOA, don't touch that! Unless you wanna lose your fingers."

B. Tailor your dialogue to the characters involved. No two people get an idea across the exact same way. A sarcastic, tough character will have an entirely different set of vocabulary from a timid, bookish one, and will have different speech patterns and dialects. Think of where the character came from and the kind of environment he or she is in; people are adaptable, and will use different words and phrasings in different settings. For example, if your guy is in a bar with his friends, he would speak very differently from when he's with a date in a fancy restaurant.
While it's probably overkill to have each person radically different in speech, any dialogue spoken by a character should sound as though it truly came from his or her mind (unless of course your character is possessed or something).

C. Stylize the speech. One of the really fun things about writing dialogue for fiction is that you don't have to be "realistic". Let's face it; most dialogue in movies and writing is nowhere near how we talk in real life. I'm pretty sure that William Shakespeare didn't say stuff like "Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing, end them" in regular conversation. And I would be very surprised if Quentin Tarantino talks on the phone with the same profane eloquence that his characters regularly spout. All dialogue in entertainment is stylized so that it's clearer, snappier, and more concise than real-life conversation.

And that's okay! In dialogue, you can add things like broken rhymes, double meanings, subtle innuendo, witty wording, Biblical/mythological references—there is no limit, as long as it sounds natural coming out of the character's mouth. Dialogue is immense fun, and it never hurts to be a little clever and put some care into what your characters say. (Don't go too overboard, though! Make sure it really is what your characters would say, and not a display of your brilliant writing skills.)

Here are some snippets of dialogue that I'm particularly fond of:

MAROON: What's wrong with Toon Town? Every Joe loves Toon Town.
VALIANT: Then get Joe to do the job, 'cause I ain't goin'!
(Who Framed Roger Rabbit)

"I didn't create this situation, I'm dealing with it! You're actin' like a first year f**king thief, I'm actin' like a professional!"
(Mr. Pink, Reservoir Dogs)

"Yes… Well, forgive me for not leaping for joy. Bad back, you know."
(Scar, The Lion King)

MARION: Dad had you figured a long time ago. He said you were a bum.
INDY: Oh, he was being generous.
MARION: The most gifted bum he ever trained. You know, he loved you like a son. It took a hell of a lot to alienate him.
INDY: Not much, just you.
(Raiders of the Lost Ark)

LYSANDER: How now, my love? Why is your cheek so pale? How chance the roses there do fade so fast?
HERMIA: Belike for want of rain; which I could well beteem them from the tempest of my eyes.
(William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream)

"Yeh're off the edge of the map, mate. Here thar be monsters!"
(Captain Hector Barbossa, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl)

ILSA: A franc for your thoughts.
RICK: In America they only fetch a penny. I guess that's how much they're worth.
ILSA: Well, I'm willing to be overcharged.

D. Say it out loud.  This can help to ensure that the dialogue sounds smooth and natural, since if something doesn't feel right when you say it, that likely means something's amiss with the wording. (I would advise mouthing it if you're in a place where there are other people around; you'll get some very weird looks otherwise. Especially if you have two or more characters arguing.)

E. Synonyms of "Said" and How to Apply Them: (Thanks to Cascade-Kirby for pointing this out.) I'm afraid that in urging their students to use words other than "said" in their prose, English teachers may have inadvertently caused a backlash where well-intentioned but misinformed writers mistakenly believe that avoiding using the word "said" automatically will make their writing better. Unfortunately, it is quite the opposite; it makes you look like you're trying way too hard to impress someone, and can become downright distracting and even comical. So let me straighten this out once and for all: it is perfectly all right to use the word "said". The only times you should use other words like "hissed", "insisted", "yelped", "snarled", "murmured", "inquired", etc. is when the situation explicitly calls for them. Don't worry, if you work at it enough, you'll develop an eye for how to properly place these things. But in the meantime, no one will get on your case if you just use "said".


Repeating words and phrases can be powerful and entertaining, but only if you know where to use it. It's especially good in dialogue, if you want to emphasize something. ("If you see someone doing something that you like, steal it. STEAL it. Because… they did.") Treat it lightly, and repetition will serve you well.

What you don't want to do is use the same tired statement or word to describe something over and over and over. One writer I saw (I won't name names) used a particular phrase a good six to eight times over the span of three paragraphs in one of his stories, and by the end of said paragraphs, I was dead sick of that phrase and wished he'd substitute something different for once. The basic rule of thumb: Try not to use the same descriptive word or phrase more than once in a single paragraph.

Word of warning, though: don't go overboard with avoiding repetition, either; it can be just as tiresome as the other extreme. For instance, something I've noticed with a couple of writers is how they bend over backwards trying to find new ways to refer to their characters instead of by their names, and in some cases, it got downright comical. Go ahead and stick with their names or a simple one-word description (the girl, the gunman, the cat). You'll just make yourself look like a fool if you start trying to get creative and end up referring to your character as something ridiculous like "the caped former soldier". Trust me on this.


You'd think this would be a given, but I've run into some work here on dA that talks to the audience like they're all in the second grade and have to have everything spoon-fed to them. Respect your reader's intelligence. You don't need to explain everything to them there on the spot. Just show them what's going on and let them draw their own conclusions, so you can either let them feel satisfied when what they expect arrives, or surprise the hell out of them with an unforeseen twist. Just because you're leading them on the path of your narrative doesn't mean that you have to hold them by the hand. And while it probably won't occur to them to thank you for it, they won't feel like they've been treated like complete idiots, and they'll be more likely to come back to read more of your work.

I came across a short story fairly recently that I think is a terrific example of how to let your readers fill in the blanks themselves. In the story Chirashi Covenant by Naomi Hirahara, the protagonist lies awake in bed after something awful happens to a family member, but despite the doctor having given her sleeping medicine to mix into hot water to help her deal with the trauma, she feels she deserves to spend sleepless nights, for she knows that she is at least partially to blame.

Later on in the story, she meets with the man she is sure had a hand in the occurrence, and serves him a cup of hot green tea. He drinks it, despite complaining of it tasting bitter, and before long, he is slumping over the counter, out cold.

Now, the narrative never says anywhere that the protagonist did anything besides innocently offering someone a cup of tea. And the mention of the sleeping medicine is very brief, almost an afterthought. But even though it is never described, you know exactly what it is the character did, without the author doing anything more than implying it. Brilliant!

6. CONNOTATIONS (thanks to Kenton-Alkemi for the suggestion)

Not all words are created equal. And while you're mining for words to use in your prose, keep in mind that connotations-- implied meanings-- can wreak havoc on your writing if you're not careful. Consider this: would you refer to a slim woman as "slender" or "bony"? Both words mean pretty much the same thing, but one has a very unflattering connotation, and would be considered quite insulting. Other examples of this include:  whimsical/capricious, stern/severe, eccentric/weird, and proud/vain. Watch out for these things, they can throw you and your reader for a loop.


Some writers refer to it as "killing your baby" (speaking of metaphors, ha ha!) or by other similarly grim sayings. But it's a hard truth: to write well, you have to know when something isn't working out, and then have the courage to pull the plug on it. There might be a clever little phrase you're in absolute love with, and you want to have it in your story so you can show the world how brilliant you are with words. Well, if it fits the story and doesn't halt the narrative, fine. Throw it in.

But if it doesn't belong in your story, then it shouldn't be there and you should get rid of it, no matter how clever it is and how much you love it. The story is what is most important, and if something doesn't sound right in your prose, then you should either fix it to better fit or just ditch it!

The willingness to kill your writing doesn't come easily (hell, I have trouble with this, too), but it IS a necessity, and it often makes all the difference between a writer and a good writer.

8. PROOFREAD IT. (thanks to QueenGwenevere for suggesting this tip)

After you think you've finished writing, read your work over and check it for spelling and grammar errors (and don't let your word processor's checker fool you! Just because it says that a word isn't misspelled does not mean that it's the right word). Then read over it again to make sure everything flows together smoothly, and edit or change anything that feels awkward. Then read it again to see if you missed anything. Send it to a friend to look over it and point out problems. And after they send it back, read it AGAIN!

Things you need to look out for: spelling problems, capitalized words that don't need it, homophones ("there/they're/their" and "you're/your" are two big ones a LOT of people mess up), simple grammar screwups (think "he is, they are" and the like), passive narrative (don't use "it was pushed by him" if you can use "he pushed it"), and present tense/past tense mixups (If your story is taking place in the past tense, don't throw your reader for a loop and throw "he looks like" or "she is" in the narrative. Just don't!). Also keep an eye on the flow of your story. If there's something that disrupts it (like say an unnecessary joke), toss it! If you need a better lead-in to the next scene, start rewriting.

… And then proofread it again. Because you can't ever be too careful.


Thanks for reading, and I hope this helps some of you in your endeavors to become writers, as opposed to just… people with keyboards.

Good luck!

EDIT: Added another tip, and one more example. Please, if you have any other suggestions I should add, let me know!

It's really been getting on my nerves lately how few really good writers there are here on dA, and I thought that maybe I'd attempt to pass on a bit of what I know about storytelling and prose, to help out those of us who don't know quite where to begin trying to improve.

I'll probably add more to this later, but I figure this is a good start. Do let me know if there's anything I should add to the list.

Special thanks to *Kenton-Alkemi for reading over this thing and offering suggestions.

More tips to be found here!
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makinworks Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2015   Filmographer
Prose is supposed to always come from first person. Otherwise it isn't prose.

Your list I read but was thinking this was more like notes to a novel or story writer

Prose is like Jack Kerouac put it more important than ideas.

If it is real and from the writers point of view then it is prose.

If you leave into third person you have left prose and are now describing things in other forms that are not prose.

Everything else is not prose
Prose must be read or recited not memorized
And so it differs from the regular novel of sorts where the perspective can shift to third person or even more examples like in bram stoker 'Dracula' the use of letters.

Prose to the experimental cut-ups that William Burroughs did with Jack Kerouac in the rare 'The Hippoes were Boiled in there Tanks" is another example.

But 'on the road' is very linear prose

Where 'visions of Cody' on the same subject matter was written in a very vertical prose

One is more flowing and easier for mainstream readers to digest

While the vertical seems to require a more studious almost stream of consciousness submission to read such prose.

Cut-ups are an entirely different beast

I agree with you on the text Sms culture.

And I also will use your advice the bits that I found very interesting and also challenging.

Have you ever read 'writing down the bones' ?

You should maybe write or distribute your own version for the students of prose.

City Lights Books would most likely publish you! If you hurry before L.F dies.....
Allysdelta Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2015   General Artist
"Prose" as written here simply means "writing that evokes the rhythms of natural speech"-- in other words, not verse. I will stick by my usage of the term until a better alternative is found that can be instantly understood by most people with a passing knowledge of literature.
pyouree Featured By Owner Sep 29, 2013
This is BIG HELP for me. Especially with the thesaurus thing. I realized I shouldn't exalt myself much because I'm just a beginner.
Thanks so much! :D
Bunni89 Featured By Owner Mar 5, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
This is still great advice to people who write stories in a visual medium (just need to ignore/repurpose bits of the description section! xD) Can't believe I never noticed this, it'll be a big help for comic dialogue, pacing etc!!
Lol I also knew a guy who was really bad for repeating the same word over and over. And run-on sentences, which made it worse XD It can be frustrating when someone's otherwise alright, but just one big glaring omnipresent error keeps ruining your chances to get hooked by the plot. Lack of immersion, I suppose?
I definately need to work on letting things go if they're not working, I always waste time trying to fix a broken plot idea cos it looks like it has potential, etc etc. Sometimes it just ain't gon happen XD
LlamaDoodle Featured By Owner Mar 1, 2013  Student Filmographer
I'd suggest keeping an open dictionary or thesaurus for inspiration when you don't know which words to use! But, like the thesaurus statement above, always make sure you know what the word means.

Also, if you're writing a longer narrative, keep a list of important planned events, dates, names and plot points! Inspiration can strike anywhere, and when you try and insert a cool new idea it could end up screwing with continuity.
crashmypartyhard Featured By Owner Nov 9, 2012  Hobbyist Artist
real awesome advice. sometimes i look at what i used to write and things and im like "i really wish i had this before....
JuniXz Featured By Owner Mar 2, 2012  Student General Artist
... But... I'm a person with a keyboard. :ohnoes:

But no really. I can't thank you enough. I love to write, but I draw more than write, so when I don't write for a while I need a reminder like this to help me collect my thoughts. Bravo.
icosahedralshells Featured By Owner Jul 6, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh wow, I really need this. haha I guess I'll have to rewrite everything over! Well not everything but... yeah.

Thanks! :)
SlytherinsHeiress Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2011  Professional Writer
I <3 this.

I'll also add that subtext in dialogue is quite nice. I have a scene in my novel where a man and his wife are arguing about whether or not their estranged nephew can stay with them. They don't come right out and say whether he's welcome or not. They argue about lemonade. But you get the gist. ;)

And it's also a good idea to bestow varying (and sometimes contradictory) traits on your characters. Tie their moral shoelaces, or so I was told. Make them human. :)

And "sigh" there's also the case of research. If you're writing a period piece, please make sure you research the topic thoroughly before you dive in and write it. If you don't know what type of cars people were driving in 1928, look it up. It's also a good idea to find out exactly how said vintage models work. How did people talk? What was going on in the world and how did it affect them? What did they eat for dinner? Etc. I came upon a story once where characters were driving on a highway...long before highways were even invented. I was pretty thrilled to learn that bug zapping lights were invented in 1934, thus I was able to stick one in my story (which takes place in 1962).

Whew. I could go on and on and on about the research alone.
QueenGwenevere Featured By Owner Jan 3, 2011
All good points, one can never be reminded too often about them.

You forgot to add "proofread, proofread, and then proofread again!" ;) Even professional writers these days seem to depend too much on their digital spellcheckers... I don't know how many times I see things riddled with simple spelling and grammar errors of the kind that spellcheckers miss (like typos that spell actual words, or random changes in tense.)

Numbers 1, 3 and 7 apply pretty well to comic writing, too. Especially the points about not over-explaining everything... I'm always struggling to keep exposition to a minimum without making things too obscure. And sometimes when you have a choice between drawing several pages of "show" versus a page of "tell", it's tempting to take that shortcut. ^^; (I try not to. Long explanations in comics tend to annoy me.)
Allysdelta Featured By Owner Jan 3, 2011   General Artist
Very true! When I've got a few minutes, I'll add it to the list. =)
Scorpius02 Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011
This is god damn useful! I definitely need this.
Cascade-Kirby Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Thanks for the refresher there. I always aim for improvement in each piece and this reminds me of more things I need to work on.

*considers* I'm one of those people who bend over backward to avoid word repetition. OTL I can't tell when using the same noun twice in a paragraph is annoying or useful, so I usually just assume it's annoying and search for another. I need to find more beta-readers.
Allysdelta Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2011   General Artist
I've read your work before (the Mirror Maze entry), and I thought it was quite well done. I was particularly impressed with how, even though I was unfamiliar with your characters, I came away with a very solid idea of who they were. So writing-wise, I'd say you're definitely on the right track. Certainly one of the better writers participating in the EA.

Heh, as far as avoiding word and phrase repetition goes, I go overboard a lot of the time, too! I guess it's paranoia or something, but I hate it when I spot the same word twice in a paragraph or sentence, and then I'm scrambling for synonyms. Maybe I should be reassured that I'm not the only one who struggles with this?

I'm glad this thing helped at least a little. It's a comfort to know I'm not just beaming into dead space or (heaven help) telling everyone things they already know.
Cascade-Kirby Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Ahh, thanks for that. When I first post pieces I can't tell if they're any good, and I can't stand to reread them for a number of months. It's nice to know that my attempts at being artful don't sound cheesy to everyone.

No, no. I doubt we're the only ones that deal with that kind of thing. Why do you think that people over use frilly synonyms of "said?" Same type of thing. (The school system might have something to do with that, too, though. I remember my teachers kept drilling into us to use words besides "said," but I later discovered it's publishing death to do that too often.)
UnderwaterMaiden Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011
I do just fine as a beta reader (when you let me read stuff!)! And your writing is fine, it'll be better when you become more proud of it and gain a little confidence. <3
Cascade-Kirby Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Ohh, okay. D: I guess I spend too much time comparing my work to other people's. Ehh. (Thank you for doing that, by the way.)
UnderwaterMaiden Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011
You really do. I enjoy your style and you can't compare it to others' work, because everyone is different. Looking at this for a few tips is harmless -- I am too! But don't go overboard, ahaha. :) (And you're welcome? I was almost afraid to comment!)
Cascade-Kirby Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I'll try not to, but I never know when is a good place to stop.
(Aww, I'm sorry. I didn't mean to offend if I did. I just meant that I might have wanted more sets of eyes before I submitted things, but I guess I submit them so that they can be read by more sets of eyes.)
Silence-Draconis Featured By Owner Dec 31, 2010
Ahh~ The nostalgic flashbacks to Composition One and Two~

This project of yours makes me smile--it covers so many of the tips I was given when learning to write (numbers 1 and 7 especially.) Plus a few I was never told but had to pick up on my own (4, 5 and 6). I hope this gets the kind of circulation it should, given how useful those things can be to know (or to be reminded of.)
Stormlantern78 Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2010  Hobbyist Writer
Kudos. This list covers some really common errors that I also notice people making far too often. I wish fluent language was a bigger part of our society these days.
SleepingCold Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2010
Haha. Browsing means sifting sometimes doesn't it?
Allysdelta Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2010   General Artist
Sort of... though I think sifting kind of implies you're actively looking for something while browsing sounds more aimless. Maybe that's just me.
SleepingCold Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2010
I think I sort of do both-not caring to find much, but hoping for something of a jewel to appear.
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